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If the site required for learning at Wits is not listed, please consult with the course Lecturer. To visit links that are not on the approved list, the student would need to have personal data available and switch off the VPN before accessing the link. We also encourage each student to consult with their service provider on how to monitor data usage and to use this data wisely. Kindly familiarise yourself with the cut-off dates for monthly data requests and the expected timeline in which you may receive your monthly data.

You may access the timeline here. If you qualify as per the criteria above, please complete the google form with your requestor details here.

The closing date for this data request will be on 02 January Tips on how to reduce data usage for iOS devices. Whatsapp video calls have been found to use the most data in independent tests, approximately 25mb for a 5 minute video call can be expected. This adds up to mb after an hour of video calls — approximately double the amount used by Facetime. This may affect your video call quality. A Facebook Messenger call can be one of the most convenient ways to reach your Facebook contacts.

Data usage for an hour of calls is approximately mb. Again, it is important to take measures to reduce your data usage during Facebook Messenger calls by making sure that you are on a wifi connection where possible. Skype app-to-app video calls use approximately mb for an hour of calls, slightly less than Facebook and Whatsapp calls. Although data usage for video calls can be small for the short minute calls here and there, this can quickly add up if the calls become longer and more regular.

In particular, issues of cost could be a factor to take into consideration. For example, ISO was mentioned by two respondents as a standard which should be achieved, but it was questioned whether accreditation is something that many South African institutions can afford.

It was clear that respondents considered the integrity of individuals who have access to personal health information to be a key factor in ensuring the security of personal health information.

It is the individual who was viewed by some respondents as being the weak link in data security therefore, individuals need to understand the importance of privacy and data protection. Financial resources and equity of access. It was queried whether all institutions will be able to afford to meet these new standards. This raised concerns about whether this will favour larger and well-funded institutions with concerns that it will perpetuate inequity in accessing data. And all…partners who may not have had the time to invest in all the systems will have to catch up and research will struggle.

So then one is exacerbating the power inequalities of who can access the data. A key factor in strengthening data management is to address the perceived low levels of knowledge and understanding of privacy, security, and the importance of personal health information.

This includes at a national level where awareness on the importance of data management must be addressed. Questions were asked as to whether decisions on restricting access to or linking of datasets were justified or due to a lack of understanding of POPIA and a fear of not being compliant with the legislation.

It was felt that the Office of the Information Regulator had the potential to have strong authority to regulate these matters.

However, concerns were expressed about the then under-resourcing of this office and the impact that would have on the ability of the office to fulfil its mandate. There was widespread feeling amongst respondents on the need for a Code of Conduct for the use of personal health information in all contexts discussed in these interviews i.

It was felt that a Code could provide a useful roadmap in the use of personal health information, with clear lines of accountability and it was recommended that it should provide examples and scenarios to demonstrate how it may apply in practice. There was a concern that without such guidance, these matters will end up in court. Much of the discussion on codes focused on the need for a Code of Conduct in the research context.

It was felt that there should be one Code for research as otherwise there was the concern that institutions would work in silos and each produce their own Code. This would be problematic for a number of reasons, including that more than one conflicting Code could apply to individuals who have dual appointments.

I think something is lacking and that researchers and institutions , et cetera , will appreciate that type of clarity. For those that discussed exemptions and codes, there was a preference for the use of a Code as opposed to seeking exemptions for the sector or individuals. This preference was based on the fact that the Code will be informed by the relevant industry with approval by the Information Regulator. Discussions to date on POPIA have very much focused on consent and in particular the legal status of broad consent i.

This is perhaps reflective of the ongoing ethical debate on broad consent in research [ 16 — 20 ], but there has been very limited consideration of the wider issues in the use of personal health information in South Africa, particularly in the clinical context.

Although broad consent, and in particular the need for clarification on the legal status of broad consent under POPIA was discussed by respondents, it was not a focus. Our findings reveal that there are issues in the management of personal health information at all levels of the national data ecosystem. It was clear from respondents that there needs to be a more integrated approach to the management of personal health information at a national level.

The potential of an integrated approach to the management of big data in health that use new and existing data sets and link them together is considerable [ 21 ], but it is often hampered by legal, technical, and political barriers [ 22 , 23 ]. To achieve this, there has been a push towards making data Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, and Reusable FAIR [ 24 ], but this is still rare [ 25 ] and integration of data sets is an ongoing challenge [ 26 , 27 ].

In South Africa, the autonomy of the provincial departments of health further challenges the possibility of a national integrated approach to data management. Despite this, there is a need for a national conversation to drive a national agenda for the governance of health information. There are a number of steps that can be taken at a national level that could address many of the issues faced at an institutional level.

First, science, technology, and innovation has been identified as key drivers of economic growth in the South Africa National Development Plan with open science and the access to and sharing of data seen as important elements of the Fourth Industrial Revolution. South Africa. This has yet to be translated from policy into practice and it is currently being hampered by a lack of clear and transparent processes to the management of personal health information across all sectors in South Africa.

A key problem identified here is that there is a lack of awareness of the value of personal health information at a national level. This may change if the draft National Data and Cloud Policy comes into force.

It is critical that personal health information is a resource that is to be protected, but equally as a resource to be appropriately used, shared, and linked with other data sets where necessary for patient care and arguably, the wider public interest. The draft National Data and Cloud Policy perhaps addresses this somewhat as it states that all data generated in South Africa is the property of South Africa, but open data sharing is also a key feature of this draft policy and it also seeks to extend the application of POPIA to data and international data transfers that currently is not under its remit.

How this balance between data sovereignty, data sharing and data protection will be achieved remains to be seen. Historical exploitative research, inequitable collaborations and historical use of biological samples and data has resulted in resistance or at least, hesitancy, amongst many in South Africa to the sharing of personal health information [ 8 , 9 , 28 ]. Discussions in these interviews indicate that there is also a reluctance to share with partners within South Africa even for programmatic purposes.

This brings an additional dimension to the widely acknowledged tension between open science and data sharing that must be considered in the South African context.

However, a conversation on how best to safeguard the privacy of the data subject, safeguard personal health information as a resource, while enabling the use of the personal health information in a manner that is in the best interests of South Africa needs to be held before the draft National Data and Cloud Policy comes into force.

A key first step is understanding the importance and value of this personal health information to the health of South Africans. Second, the challenges relating to the governance of personal health information are inter-departmental and cross-sectoral.

There are many different government departments that have a vested interest and an important role in the management of personal health information. There is no one department that can take ownership of and drive this process and arguably nor should one department lead this development. Data stewardship is an approach to the management of data that seeks to enable its use while also protecting the data and the data subject [ 5 , 29 ]. Such a body would be tasked with stewarding the national data governance landscape, conducting stakeholder and public engagement, and the setting of standards and best practices.

Considering the challenges relating to the governance of personal health information are inter-departmental and cross-sectoral, the establishment of an Independent National Data Stewardship Committee in South Africa may be appropriate at this juncture. Third, respondents made it clear that there is a need for guidance on the governance and management of personal health information. It was clear from respondents that programmatic success is contingent on continued funding and trust in the system is built upon clear, transparent, and accountable policies.

Governance frameworks that enables the legal and ethical use of data in a manner that prevents harm to the data subject and promotes public trust has been called for in South Africa [ 15 ]. Similarly, the importance of governance frameworks in promoting integrity, solidarity, and accountability in data sharing have been echoed elsewhere [ 30 ]. Sectoral specific codes of conduct as a means to navigate the tensions between meeting data protection standards while also enabling the sharing, accessing and linking of data have been suggested [ 31 ].

However, these interviews make it clear that considerable issues in the use of personal health information arise outside of the research context.

Considering the confusion and lack of understanding on the impact of POPIA on personal health information, the development of a more national Code of Conduct on the use of personal health information must be considered and this is an initiative that could come under a National Data Stewardship Committee. The advantage of one Code of Conduct for the processing of personal health information is that it avoids multiple and likely conflicting codes in the health sector that leads to an even more fragmented approach.

It is an initiative that must also consider the realities of meeting these new data protection principles in the diverse and challenging health care settings in South Africa. Fourth, the establishment of DACs was seen as an important and necessary step in ensuring transparent data access.

The primary function of RECs is to protect research participants [ 32 , 33 ] whereas DACs promote data sharing in a manner that seeks to protect the data subject, their community, and the producers of data and their institution [ 34 ]. Additionally, data access requests are often made outside of the research context and a formalised process is needed for these requests.

Indeed the NHLS has a formalised process in place for data requests in the research context, but there is no clear process outside of this context should personal identifiers be required. Fifth, the economic impact of these new requirements for data protection and data management must be considered. Conversations need to be had on how to appropriately fund data management across all sectors that use personal health information and takes into consideration the realities of the different health care settings.

There is the danger that less well-resourced institutions may be denied access to personal health information due to their inability to finance certain security safeguards.

This risks impacting care, but also raises issues of equity and justice in access to personal health information. Sixth, this national conversation also needs to consider how South African personal health information is managed in the international context. There are benefits to linking data sets outside of South Africa as this could provide unique insights into the origins of diseases, as well as facilitate treatment evaluation and drug development [ 30 , 35 ].

Health is not just a national concern, but in a globalised and interconnected world, health risks, disease and viruses easily cross national borders [ 36 ]. A key feature of international collaborative research that many researchers in South Africa are a part of is the international sharing of data and funders and journals often do require data sharing [ 37 — 39 ] Thus this need for the international sharing of personal health information must be understood and a part of this national conversation.

In Europe, questions have been asked about the extent to which data sharing policies comply with the GDPR [ 37 ]. Here, respondents expressed some concern over the influence and arguably pressure of data policies that are attached to the funding of public health and health research. The power of non-governmental organisations NGOs , philanthropic organisations and other countries to influence policy change through regulations or policies attached to conditions of funding should not be ignored [ 40 ].

The word of caution expressed by respondents who noted the power of funders in the realm of data protection must be heeded. International funders, NGOs and international collaborators must be aware of these new rules and respect and uphold the new legal framework on the protection of personal information in Sout Africa. Sout Africa however is one of many African countries that has strengthened its data protection framework, therefore similar concerns are likely to be felt in other African countries that are reliant on international funders to support clinical care, treatment programmes, and research.

Data sharing policies and data access policies can not longer be dictated by such international bodies based on what is in their interests. Any data sharing and data access policies as a condition of funding must respect and uphold national legislation on the use of data.

Finally, it is important to note that national frameworks will not offset the need for more localised processes and workflows. It must be clarified which actors are responsible for ensuring data security and the parties concerned must be sufficiently supported for this task. While respondents often focused on the need for accountable processes and transparency in decision making and the responsibilities of others, they often failed to consider their own individual responsibility despite individual staff members being seen as the weak link.

This again points to the importance of institutional workflows with a precise delegation of responsibilities and accountabilities, and also the need for education across the board on data protection, privacy, and security.

The findings reported here are from those who work in senior management and in the management, collection, and use of data. As per Staunton et al it is important that there is also community-level engagement and that the views of the data subjects themselves are sought [ 12 ]. Their perspectives on the use of their personal health information that may have been obtained through routine clinical testing, research, surveillance, provision of treatment programmes as well as other sources that increasingly includes digital tools must be considered.

As part of this work, there should be an exploration of whether the cultural concerns and considerations in the use of biological samples equally apply to the use of personal health information. The implementation of POPIA to the processing of personal health information is challenging, complex, and likely costly. It is also bringing long-standing issues on data access, data linking, and data management to the fore in South Africa.

The coming into force of POPIA affords us with the opportunity to address these issues and the strengthening of data protection in the context of personal health information should be seen as just one strand in the overall improvement of data management that is necessary.

POPIA is about strengthening the protection of personal information, but equally its Preamble states that it is about protecting important interests that includes the free flow of information across South Africa.

Personal health information must be appropriately managed to ensure the privacy of the data subject, but equally as a resource to be used in the public interest. Disclaimer: The findings and conclusions in this paper are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Browse Subject Areas? Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. Introduction Vast quantities of healthcare data are being collected and processed to predict outbreaks, respond to epidemics, improve service delivery in health care systems, and cut costs.

Download: PPT. Results There was a general awareness amongst respondents on the need to strengthen the protection of personal health information.

Tensions between strengthening data protection and the use of personal health information Despite this perceived need for POPIA, there were concerns about its implementation in the health context. Data management It was clear from respondents that overall there is a need to rethink the management of personal health information in South Africa. Importance of personal health information. Data quality. Discussion Discussions to date on POPIA have very much focused on consent and in particular the legal status of broad consent i.

Limitations The findings reported here are from those who work in senior management and in the management, collection, and use of data. Conclusion The implementation of POPIA to the processing of personal health information is challenging, complex, and likely costly.

Supporting information. S1 Table. Breakdown of respondents. S1 File. Acknowledgments Disclaimer: The findings and conclusions in this paper are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

References 1. A human rights approach to an international code of conduct for genomic and clinical data sharing.



How much mobile data does video calling use? – apps2data

Zoom uses roughly MB GB of data per hour for a one-on-one call, and MB GB per hour for group meetings. Mobile users will likely consume slightly less data due to Zoom optimizing its bandwidth based on your g: south africa. Sep 21,  · Letter of Authorization (LOA) a. Should be hand-signed and dated within the last 3 months b. Account number and stamp in the LOA (if the end-user is a company) Copy of Bill – dated within the last 3 months Additional Requirement: a. For Business: Copy of Authorized representative’s photo ID b. For Residential: Copy of end-user photo ID c. It is. Zoom requires internet speeds of between kps and Mbps for a to video call, in terms of both upload and download. If you were to make a p Zoom call lasting one hour, you’d use MB of data downloading video, plus another MB uploading video. That brings your total usage for the hour to just over g: south africa.


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